View Our Online Catalog

MSDS Search

Request a Quote

Buy Now

Heterocyclic Amines and Metal Complexes

Even though heterocyclic amines were first synthesized more than 100 years ago, today, new and unexpected uses for heterocyclic amine ligand technology, especially metal complexes generated using phenanthroline and bipyridine chemistries, have made this family of reagents more popular than ever.

GFS has the products for any heterocyclic amine ligand application, including:  

Fiber optics
Thin films and coatings
Metal organic frameworks
Solid state chemistry


More recently, this ligand technology explosion has been accompanied by a demand for higher purity products and for more elaborate chemical characterization. GFS has committed to the development of these products, including high purity metal complexes.  

An example of the new generation of multi-pyridyl ligands that are finding novel applications in solid state chemistry is TPT [2,4,6-tris-(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine]. Its incorporation into bridged-metal configurations can impact research in magnetic, luminescent, porous, and catalytic materials.

TPT is an essentially planar ligand that enables the construct of unusual and highly symmetrical polynuclear complexes and metal-organic frameworks.

In a complementary technology, the ability of ruthenium complexes to act as photo-stable fluorophores is a feature that can be incorporated into polymeric substrates derived from sol-gel, polyamide, or other polymer technologies.
The first crude heterocyclic amines that were derived over 100 years ago reflected a technical grade of purity that was sufficient to exploit their reversible electronic behavior. Eventually, they were part of a group of very sensitive, high-potential oxidation-reduction indicators that were invaluable in the pre-instrument analytical era.
Unfortunately, the outstanding synthetic abilities of the “early” analytical chemists have been mostly forgotten. That expertise, for example, allowed the investigation of over 100 derivatives of 1,10-phenanthroline. As a result of this work, there is now available a series of oxidation-reduction indicators covering the potential range 0.85 to 1.25 volts in small steps.

 GFS Chemicals can provide Single-ring systems Including:

Single-ring systems
3-substituted furans
Pyrazoles & Isoxazoles
Maleic anhydrides
1,2,3,5- tetrasubstituted pyrroles
Tetrahydrofurans, Pyrrolidines
Polysubstituted Pyridines
2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidines
Piperidines, N-Benzyl-3-alkylidene

Polycyclic/fused ring systems
1,2,3-triazoles (‘click chemistry’)
Bicyclic pyridinones
Fused pyridines from halopyrazine coupling and condensation
2-substituted furo[3,2-b]pyridines
β- and γ-carbolines
Indoles and benzofurans

Spiro-ring systems
Spiropyridines (C2-symmetrical chiral ligands)
Spiro-ring systemsPolycyclic/fused ring systems

For more information or to receive your free presentation on heterocycles, contact